P2P Lending


Peer-to-Peer lending is a form of debt-based crowdfunding connecting borrowers and lenders by circumventing conventional loan processes & intermediaries, facilitated by online P2P lending platforms. In simple terms- P2P lending aggregates lenders and borrowers, facilitates the matching of lenders with borrowers so that borrowers can obtain funds at an interest rate lower than banks while the lenders can get earn interest higher than from bank savings.

P2P Business Model

Since the invention of money, individuals and institutions (lenders) with money have been lending to people and businesses in need of money (borrowers). In India Informal Finance has always been the biggest source of funding. There are many private lenders from many years who have been servicing alternative lending market. The Marwari and Baniya community have been very active in this space for a long time. However, most of this financing is achieved by mobilising existing social relationships like friends, family, or professional acquaintances since financing has a lot to do with Trust.

The explosive growth of the internet and social networks has enabled the creation of a whole new way of financing – P2P Lending, an online marketplace that act as intermediaries between lenders and borrowers. This means that borrowers and lenders do not need to have existing social relationships with each other to make a transaction happen. Instead, the transaction is based on the credit information of the borrowers as well as the underlying assets backing the loan (Like it should be).

In order to avail the service, borrowers are required to pay a fixed origination fee, while lenders often have to pay an administration fee, depending on the terms of the P2P lending platform. The interest rates are usually determined by the platform, sometimes the rates are set as per mutual agreement between the lender and the borrower. Under the P2P business model, an auction is conducted where the lender can make a bid for a borrower’s loan requirements and the borrower can either accept or reject the bid. Further, the platform can offer services such as credit assessment, recovering loans, and so on.

By eliminating the need for intermediaries, social lending platforms manage to offer high returns on investments as well as low - interest rates for borrowers, irrespective of market conditions.

Read more on our blog about incredible growth prospects in P2P lending.

Benefits of investing in P2P Lending?

Richfield makes P2P lending safer, easier and more rewarding. With P2P lending, you can create a seamless passive income stream with regular monthly repayments. We operate with a mission of keeping our costs low compared to traditional financial institutions by cutting out the middleman and pass all of the the savings directly to our investors who get high returns and borrowers who are charged low interest rates.

Strong Borrower Screening

Every borrower goes through a strong screening process of over 200 data points verified by experienced underwriting professionals.

Higher Returns

With P2P investing, you can earn better returns than most traditional investment options. Interest rates range between 12% - 20% depending on the risk appetite.

Increase Your Potential earnings

Create passive income with regular monthly repayments as borrowers pay back with EMIs.                      

P2P Investment Options

A. Regular Personal Loans
Borrowers Profile Salaried(90%) or small business
Loan Amount ₹25,000 to ₹5,00,000
Interest Rate per annum 18% to 33%
Tenure 6 Months to 24 Months
Repayment EMI
Investment per borrower ₹3,000 to ₹5,000
NPA 4%
Minimum Investment ₹10,000
B. Micro Loan (instant loan)
Borrowers Profile Salaried
Loan Amount ₹3,000 to ₹20,000
Interest Rate per annum 48% to 120%
Tenure 15 days to 45 days
Repayment One shot
Investment per borrower ₹500
NPA 5%
Minimum Investment ₹5,000

Alternative P2P Investment

A. Working Capital Loan (Settlement Financing)
Borrowers Profile Micro ATM (AEPS) or Payment Gateway Operators
Guarantor Companies Micro ATM (AEPS) or Payment Gateway Companies
Loan Amount ₹10,00,000
Interest Rate per annum 11% to 12%
Tenure Monthly with auto reinvestment
Repayment Monthly Interest payout
Minimum Investment ₹10,000
NPA None
B. Medical Loan
Borrowers Profile Individual Users of Partner Companies
Guarantor Companies Leading Medical loan company
Loan Amount ₹20,000 to ₹5,00,000
Interest Rate per annum 12% to 13%
Tenure 3 Months to 15 Months
Repayment EMI or Customer can opt for 1 year investment with auto reinvestment of EMIs
Minimum Investment ₹10,000
Maximum Delay 15 Days (Guarantor will pay the EMI if delayed by 15 days)
NPA None
C. Group Loans
Borrowers Profile Groups of semiskilled and unskilled people in Rural India
Guarantor Companies Leading Micro Finance company
Loan Amount Upto ₹1,00,000 to the group of people
Interest Rate per annum 12.0% to 14.0%
Tenure 12 Months to 18 Months
Repayment EMI or Customer can opt for 1 year investment with auto reinvestment of EMIs
Minimum Investment ₹10,000
Maximum Delay 60 Days (Guarantor will close the loan after non-payment of 2 EMIs along with interest)
NPA None
D. Personal Loans to Small Business
Borrowers Profile MSMEs
Guarantor Companies Leading Personal Loan company
Loan Amount ₹2,00,000 to ₹10,00,000
Interest Rate per annum 12%-13.5%
Tenure 12 Months to 24 Months
Repayment EMI or Customer can opt for 1 year investment with auto reinvestment of EMIs
Minimum Investment ₹10,000
Maximum Delay 60 Days (Guarantor will close the loan after non-payment of 2 EMIs along with interest)
NPA None

RBI's Regulation for P2P

The P2P lending is regulated by the Master Directions for NBFC Peer to Peer Lending Platform issued by the RBI in 2017. Only an NBFC can register as a P2P lender with the permission of RBI. Every P2P lender should obtain a certificate of registration from the RBI. Every existing and non-banking NBFC-P2P should register with the Department of Non-Banking Regulation, Mumbai. Further, the P2P should have a net owned fund of at least 20 million and meet other conditions laid down by RBI.

Some of these restrictions/conditions are as follows:

A P2P Lender:

  • Can act as an intermediary providing an online marketplace or platform to the participants.
  • Shall not raise deposits under Section 45I(bb) of the RBI Act, 1934 or the Companies Act, 2013.
  • Cannot lend on its own, cannot provide or arrange any credit enhancement or a credit guarantee.
  • Cannot allow an international flow of funds or cross-sell any item except for loan-specific insurance products.
  • Needs to mandatorily process all data concerning its activities and participants and maintain storage of the data on hardware located within India.
  • Should have an approved policy setting the eligibility criteria for participants, the price for the P2P services, rules for matching of lenders with borrowers.
  • Should ensure that the loans between lenders and borrowers are approved with a signed contract.
  • Shall disclose on its website the method of credit assessment and factors considered by it, grievance redressal mechanism, an overview of the business model, contact details of grievance redressal officer etc.
  • With consent, the company should have access to credit information for the participants
  • Only Indian companies registered under Companies Act 2013 with a net worth of ₹2 crore can apply for a Certificate of Registration (NBFC) from Reserve Bank of India which is needed to conduct P2P lending business.
  • The loan period shall not be more than three years.
  • No international parties shall be involved.
  • No secured lending will be facilitated.
  • The lending shall not be direct, but through two escrow accounts, one for lenders and one for borrowers.
  • The company shall remain liable for actions of recovery agents and others.
  • The P2P is also required to file certain quarterly statements with the RBI such as the statement of loans disbursed, outstanding and closed during the quarter, a statement of funds held in the escrow account.

Guidelines for P2P participants
A P2P lender should carry out due diligence of its participants, do a credit assessment and risk profiling of the borrowers on its platform and disclose the details to prospective lenders on the platform. A P2P lender should obtain prior and explicit consent from the participant to access their credit information and have documentation of loan agreements and related documents. A P2P lender should also assist in the disbursement, repayments and recovery of the loans.

The transfer of funds in the P2P platform will be through the mechanism of escrow account operated by a bank promoted trustee. The P2P should maintain two escrow accounts, one for receiving the funds from lenders, and another for collections from borrowers. P2P shall not deal in cash transactions.

What are the borrowing and lending limits of a P2P Platform?

  • Minimum Amount lent can be as low as ₹500.
  • No Lender can lend more than ₹50 lakhs (in aggregate) across all P2P platforms.
  • If a lender lends above ₹10 lakhs, a certificate from a practicing Chartered Accountant is required certifying minimum net worth of ₹50 lakhs.
  • In a one on one lending, the amount lent by a single lender to a particular borrower should not exceed ₹50,000
  • No borrower can borrow more than ₹10 lakhs.

Tenure for lending and disclosure requirements
The maximum tenure for the amounts lent under P2P lending is fixed at three years. A P2P platform has to disclose to the lender the details of the borrower such as the credit score, terms of the loan etc. excluding any personal contact information.
The P2P is also required to file certain quarterly statements with the RBI such as the statement of loans disbursed, outstanding and closed during the quarter, a statement of funds held in the escrow account.

Default in repayment of P2P loans
The P2P platform is required to have a robust process for screening of participants to minimise loan repayment defaults and can render services for recovery of loans granted under their platform as well. However, P2P platform is responsible for the recovery of the loans granted using their platform along-with the actions of its service providers, including recovery agents. The P2P platform should also maintain the confidentiality of information pertaining to its participants that is available with its service providers.

Current Players of the Industry

India currently has about 30 online P2P lending platforms. Some of these are Lendbox (Our Partner), i2ifunding, Faircent, Monexo etc. In 2018, as many as 11 P2P players received the RBI licence to operate as an NBFC - P2P company.
RBI in its master directions has defined NBFC - P2P as a non - banking institution which carries on the business of a peer - to - peer lending platform. The estimated P2P lending to be generated in India over the next 5 years is pegged at around $4 bn. Whereas in China, the P2P lending book currently is around $100 bn.

Invest in P2P Lending with Richfield!

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